18/02/06 (B338-A) Selon un article publié en Anglais sur le site de la BBC, le coût de la corruption dans les pays d’Afrique avoisinerait 25 % du revenu national !!! A cause ce fléau, les populations sont appauvries y compris dans les pays riches en ressources naturelles : Pétrole, gaz, etc.. (Info lecteur)

________________________________ Note de l’ARDHD
Même si Guelleh pense l’inverse bien sur, il est rassurant de constater qu’un mouvement anti-corruption prend de l’ampleur et de la force en Afrique et que des dirigeants corrompus qui ont épuisé toutes les richesses de leur pays, commencent à être traduits devant les Justices pénales (ex : Kenya …)

A qui le prochain tour ?


The cost of corruption in Africa
Lien avec l’article : http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4723572.stm

A Djibouti, j’ai fait interdire que l’on utilise ces affiches, sinon c’est Gabode !
On ne va pas me donner des leçons quand même ! A toutes fins utiles, nous avons préparé un modèle spécial pour Djibouti :

Many African countries are conducting anti-corruption campaigns

Corruption costs African countries an estimated 25% of its combined national income, Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo said – some $148bn a year.

The outgoing leader of the African Union called the problem « a preventable loss » and said that industries such as oil, gas and minerals were worst hit.

He blamed « unpatriotic citizens », who he said were looting African resources. The West was collaborating, he added, by allowing the proceeds from graft to be held in banks outside Africa.


Speaking at the the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Abuja, Mr Obasanjo promised a « war against corruption » in Nigeria, which is notorious for graft.

Unpatriotic citizens in our midst loot our resources and cart the proceeds away into Western banks

Olusegun Obasanjo

Mr Obasanjo said revenue from extractive industries – mining and oil production – was « a major contributor to this monumental and preventable loss ».

« The popular ‘paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty’ is a daily experience in many African countries rich in oil, gas and minerals, » the president said.

« The majority of citizens in these countries still lack basic health and educational facilities. »


EITI was formed as part of an effort to oblige governments to open their oil accounts to scrutiny, and to hold them accountable for their income.

« Unpatriotic citizens in our midst loot our resources and cart the proceeds away into Western banks with the collaboration of Western financial systems, » Mr Obasanjo said, in comments quoted by the This Day newspaper.

« When we signed into EITI in 2003, we resolved to implement it through a model of coalition. »

President Obasanjo blamed the prevalence of corruption revealed by recent audits on the « institutional decay and dislocation that our country suffered over the last two decades ».

« Our challenge is to use the impetus granted us by these audits to transform our revenue reporting mechanisms, production institutions and human personnel for a more transparent extractive industry, » he said.

He said civil society organisations could serve as « whistle blowers that can complement our anti-corruption drive ».

17/02/06 (B338-A) Kenya : un exemple intéressant que les Djiboutiens devraient mettre à l’étude ! Les Kenyans manifestent dans la rue pour réclamer qu’on leur rende les sommes détournées par certains dirigeants politiques, habitués à détourner les fonds publics. Ca pourrait donner des idées ! (BBC News – Article en anglais signalé par un lecteur)

Kenyans demand more graft scalps

The protesters want the vice-president to resign
Riot police have deployed in Kenya’s capital as anti-corruption protesters took part in a banned demonstration.

« Our money, our money! » thousands of protesters shouted in central Nairobi demanding the vice-president and head of civil service step down.

They, along with three ministers who have already resigned, were named in a graft report which has rocked Kenyans.

One of those ministers, Chris Murungaru, has appeared in court on Friday morning to be charged.

Mr Murungaru, who was national security minister, pleaded not guilty to refusing to declare his assets before the country’s Anti-Corruption Commission.

He says it infringes on his human rights.

The charge carries a maximum sentence of three-years in prison. What Kenyans need to demand is the complete dismantling of a corrupt system that corrupts even those who claim they are incorruptible

MP Uhuru Kenyatta

He is the first former minister to be charged in connection with a multi-million dollar scam, known as the Anglo Leasing affair, which involved hundreds of millions of dollars of government contracts being awarded to a phantom firm.

The three ministers who have already resigned as well as Vice-President Moody Awori, who is under heavy pressure to follow suit were named in a report written by the former anti-corruption investigator, John Githongo.

All four have declared their innocence.

Protesters in Nairobi also called for the vice-president to go now.

« Awori must go. Awori must go, » the crowd shouted.


A parliamentary committee has returned from a visit to the UK where it met Mr Githongo to tell reporters that it has strong evidence implicating senior officials.

Uhuru Kenyatta, who led the team, said the evidence revealed a « mafia » like system involving top businessmen and politicians.

« What Kenyans need to demand is the complete dismantling of a corrupt system, a system that corrupts even those who claim they are incorruptible, » the son of the country’s founding president told reporters.

MPs are demanding that parliament, which has been in recess since December, be recalled so they can discuss the allegations.

Earlier this week, Kenyan police ordered 20 senior politicians and officials not to leave the country until investigations were concluded into a second scandal, the so-called « Goldenberg » affair, in which millions of dollars were paid for non-existent exports of gold and diamonds.

President Mwai Kibaki was elected in 2002 on a pledge to fight the corruption which had characterised the previous administration of Mr Moi, who was in power during the Goldenberg affair.

14/02/06 (B337-A) Histoire chronologique de Djibouti (BBC en Anglais) – Article signalé par un lecteur.

Timeline: Djibouti – a chronology of key events:

825 – Islam introduced to the area.

French rules

1862 – France acquires the port of Obock.

1892 – Djibouti becomes capital of French Somaliland.

1897 – Ethiopia acquires parts of Djibouti after signing a treaty with France.

1917 – Railway connecting the port of Djibouti with the Ethiopian hinterland reaches Addis Ababa.

1946 – Djibouti made an overseas territory within the French Union with its own legislature and representation in the French parliament.

1958 – Djibouti votes to join the French Community.


1967 – Referendum takes place during which Afar people and Europeans vote to remain part of the French Community; French Somaliland renamed the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas.

1977 – The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas becomes independent as Djibouti with Hassan Gouled Aptidon as president.

1979 – People’s Progress Assembly party set up with a view to uniting the Afar and Issa peoples.

1981 – Djibouti becomes a one-party state with the People’s Progress Assembly as the sole party.

1992 – A constitution allowing for a limited multiparty system adopted; fighting erupts between government troops and the Afar Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) in the northeast of the country.

Power-sharing agreement

1994 – The government and the main faction of FRUD sign a power-sharing agreement officially ending the civil war; the radical faction of FRUD continues to fight.

1999 – President Aptidon announces that he will not run in the presidential election; Ismael Omar Gelleh elected president.

2000 February – The government and the radical faction of FRUD sign a peace agreement finally putting an end to the civil war.

2000 March – Former Prime Minister and leader of the radical faction of FRUD Ahmed Dini returns to Djibouti after nine years in exile.

2000 December – Coup attempt said to have been masterminded by sacked police chief General Yacin Yabeh Galab fails and Yacin charged with conspiracy and breaching state security.

US Marines in Djibouti: Country occupies a strategic position

2003: War on terror Africa-style

2002 January – German warships and 1,000 sailors arrive in Djibouti to patrol shipping lanes in Red Sea area, in support of US actions in Afghanistan.

2002 September – 1992 law allowing only three other parties to compete with ruling party expires, paving way for full multi-party politics.

2002 September – Djibouti says it won’t be used as a base for attacks against another country in the region. Some 900 US troops set up camp in support of US-led war on terror.

2003 January – Coalition supporting President Ismael Omar Gelleh – the Union for Presidential Majority – wins Djibouti’s first free multi-party elections since independence in 1977.

2003 September – Government begins drive to detain and expel illegal immigrants, thought to make up 15% of population.

2004 April – At least 50 people die in flooding in the capital.

2005 April – Presidential elections: Incumbent President Guelleh is the sole candidate.

20/07/05 (B307) Djibouti has confirmed that two Ethiopian airmen who defected there in June have been returned to Ethiopia. (By Mohammed Adow BBC News, Ethiopia) En anglais.

Interior Minister Yassin Elmi Bouh told the BBC the pilots were handed over last week after agreeing to go home.

A third man, their flight engineer, did not want to return and is still in Djibouti, he said.

The United Nations refugee agency (UNHCR) has expressed fears the deported pilots could face treason charges which carry the death sentence.

Djibouti is a signatory to the United Nations Convention on refugees, which prohibits expulsion or return of a refugee to a country where his or her life or freedom may be threatened.

Family members of the pilots in Ethiopia’s capital Addis Ababa rejected the allegations of the Djiboutian minister saying that the two never intended to come back to Ethiopia.

Eight Ethiopian airmen asked for asylum in Belarus last month.

At least 36 people were killed in Ethiopia after security forces fired at people protesting at alleged electoral fraud last month.


Mr Bouh told me the flight engineer, who is believed to have sought asylum with the two Ethiopian Air Force pilots on 9 June, could stay in Djibouti as long as he wishes.

He added that although Djibouti and Ethiopia share cordial relations, his country does not want to trample on international conventions on human rights in order to keep these relations.

Family members say the pilots are being held in an air force base outside Addis Ababa and are not allowed visitors.

"They would have been with us and not lurking in jail if they were brought back voluntarily," a tearful Senait Teferra, sister to one of the pilots, told me.

The relatives say that they have been visiting international organisations like the Red Cross and the UNHCR in a bid to secure the pilots’ release.

No comment

UN officials have confirmed that they failed to gain access to the airmen in Djibouti to determine whether they deserve refugee status.

"Despite earlier indications from government officials that we would be able to meet the Ethiopians, we still have not seen them and are growing increasingly concerned that the pilots may have been returned to Ethiopia against their will," UNHCR spokesman Ron Redmond told reporters in Geneva on Friday.

Kamel Morjane, UN assistant high commissioner for refugees, also wrote to Djibouti’s Foreign Minister Mahamoud Ali Youssouf last week expressing concern on the airmen’s fate.

"It is essential for the UNHCR and Djibouti authorities to find an appropriate solution in conformity with international refugee law," part of the letter read.

Officials at the Ethiopia’s Foreign Affairs Ministry declined to comment on the matter despite the numerous calls I made to them.

"They would have been with us and not lurking in jail if they were brought back voluntarily"

Senait Teferra

Sister of a pilot

31/08/03 (B210) Djibouti repousse l’ultimatum pour les étrangers (BBC en anglais)

Djibouti extends refugee

Djibouti has extended the deadline for illegal immigrants to leave the country
by two weeks.

The news came as thousands of immigrants used any means of transport to try
to get out of the country before the previous deadline of Sunday.

The immigrants, mainly
Ethiopians and Somalis, have been told by authorities they must leave the
country for « security » and « economic » reasons.

The United States has
been using Djibouti – strategically located on the Horn of Africa – as a base
to collect intelligence on the al-Qaeda network.

No further time limit
will be granted after 15 September

War on terror Africa-style

Warnings by
Washington of possible attacks on Western interests in the country are thought
to have led the government to clamp down on the foreigners.

« No further time
limit will be granted after 15 September, » Interior Minister Abdulkader
Dualeh Wais told journalists.

Illegal immigrants wishing
to apply for asylum have been streaming into a camp set up by the United Nations
refugee agency at Aour-Aoussa, in the south of the country.

« The asylum seekers
are largely Somalis who can’t go back to their home territory because of the
conflict and instability there, » a Djiboutian official said.

Economic impact
Illegal immigrants who did not leave would be deported,

government spokesman Ali Ahmed Koulet told the BBC.

On Saturday, 1,000 Ethiopians
– of the 30,000 expected by the Ethiopian authorities – arrived in Dire Dawa.

« Both young and old
Ethiopians arrived carrying small possessions, » a Dire Dawa official

Thousands of refugees
are also passing through the town of Lowya-ado to reach the self-proclaimed
republic of Somaliland.

The economic impact
of the departure of so many immigrants is already being felt.

cooks, cleaners, security guards and car washers are now impossible to find
while shops and bakeries are short staffed. Street food vendors have lost
much of their clientele.

The interior ministry
is urging Djibouti nationals to take up the jobs vacated by the foreigners
but they are demanding double the wages.

There are 1,500 United
States soldiers in Djibouti as part of regional counter-terrorism efforts.
The country also hosts 2,700 French military personnel, as well as 800 German
and 50 Spanish troops.